viernes, 17 de octubre de 2008

Quinto Aplanador: Subcontratación (Outsourcing)

En el mundo plano descrito por Thomas Friedman en su libro, las barreras de fronteras, idiomas y culturas son casi nulas para las empresas (incluso las pequeñas y medianas), lo que conjunto con una visión de mercado capitalista las obliga a bajar sus gastos a cualquier costo para ofrecer mejores precios y luchar contra la competencia. Esta eterna búsqueda de disminuir costos ha llevado a diferentes empresas a contratar otras empresas y personal fuera de las fronteras donde originalmente tienen un mercado o donde tienen la base de operaciones. China, India y un manojo de países de Europa del Este y Asía del Sur así como Irlanda proporcionan gran cantidad de personal a miles de empresas en diferentes partes del mundo a menor costo y la misma calidad.

En el caso particular de India, un país que tenia preferencia por el bloque Soviético luego de conseguir su independencia en 1957, que tiene más de 1.000 millones de habitantes, muchos de ellos con conocimiento informático-científico avanzado por poseer la red de universidades más desarrolladas y exigentes en estos aspectos en el mundo; no posee un gobierno estable capaz de impulsar la innovación y el desarrollo de nuevas empresas. Esto lleva a que los profesionales Indios busquen oportunidades en otros lugares, encontrando trabajo en su propio país, pero por compañías extranjeras que buscan buenos y preparados trabajadores a menor precio. La gran mayoría son empresas Norteamericanas con base en Banglore (El Silicon Valley indio), que representan el primer contratador indio en el área de la informática.

Aunque el fenómeno del Outsourcing en informática despegó realmente en el año 1999 con la crisis del Y2K, donde compañías de todo el mundo buscaban programadores para respaldar la información de sus compañías, clientes y personal. Los indios se pusieron a la cabeza en esta tarea, seguido por China, solo para que “las compañías se dieran cuenta que cualquier centro telefónico, cualquier centro de apoyo empresarial, cualquier tarea relacionada con la tecnología de la información que pudiese digitalizarse en cualquier punto del planeta debía contratado en el administrador más barato, más rápido o más eficiente”

Este proceso llegó para quedarse y la India capitalizó buena parte de él en informática y servicios de Call Ceters de habla inglesa, ¿Aprenderan pronto español y llamaremos a Bangalore cuando marquemos un número 800? Es tiempo de quitarse las botas de alpinismo y ponerse los zapatos de correr

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